By A. Abragam
This e-book is a reissue of a vintage Oxford textual content, and gives a complete therapy of electron paramagnetic resonance of ions of the transition teams. The emphasis is on simple rules, with various references to courses containing extra experimental effects and extra specified advancements of the idea. An introductory survey offers a basic realizing, and a normal survey offers such subject matters because the classical and quantum resonance equations, the spin-Hamiltonian, Endor, spin-spin and spin-lattice interactions, including an overview of the identified behaviour of ions of every of the 5 transition teams, on the experimentalist's point. ultimately a theoretical survey, utilizing team idea and symmetry homes, discusses the basics of the idea of paramagnetism.
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Extra info for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Ions
Their presence may be detected through the observation of transitions occurring at different values of the magnetic field, instead of all being superimposed at hv = gfiH. With sufficient precautions to ensure that no transitions escape detection, the number of resonance lines (= 2S in strong fields) may be used to check the value of S, or to determine it if not previously known. 3). This variation of intensity makes it readily possible to distinguish 'fine structure' due to such initial splittings from hyperfine structure (see below), where the lines corresponding to different nuclear orientations have the same intensity at temperatures where kT > hyperfine energy.
At high temperatures such compounds are paramagnetic, but when the temperature is lowered sufficiently they may enter an ordered magnetic state, either ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, or antiferromagnetic, with simple or complicated ordered spin arrangements. Classically they have been extensively investigated by bulk magnetic and thermal measurements, and more recently (particularly in the ordered state) by means of neutron diffraction. Judiciously chosen compounds have made it possible to attain temperatures as low as a few millidegrees absolute by the method of magnetic cooling; in this region their hyperfine and nuclear properties have been analyzed by the techniques of nuclear alignment and orientation.
Both experimentally and theoretically we find that in the vast majority of cases the correct 26 INTRODUCTION TO term is of the form which is shorthand for By a suitable choice of axes that, when the hyperfine structure is due to the nucleus of the paramagnetic ion itself and not to the nucleus of a ligand ion, nearly always means the principal axes of the (/-tensor, this can be reduced to the form In a first approximation in a strong external magnetic field (A < gfiH) the magnetic hyperfine energy is where M is the electronic magnetic quantum number and m the nuclear magnetic quantum number, and A is given by the relation where (I, m, n) are the direction cosines of H with respect to the principal axes (x, y, z).
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Ions by A. Abragam