By Robert Ware
Issues lined contain analytical Marxism, method, exploitation, and materialism. Contents: creation; what's a Marxist Today?; what's residing and what's lifeless in Marxism?; Analytical Marxism and Morality; the right way to Make No experience of Marx; Elster, Marx and method; Marxism and renowned Politics: The Microfoundations of sophistication clash; neighborhood, culture, and the sixth Thesis on Feuerbach; Methodological Individualism, mental Individualism and the protection of cause; moment suggestions on estate relatives and Exploitation; John Roemer's monetary Philosophy and the Perils of Formalism; at the Exploitation of Cotton, Corn and hard work; an alternative choice to 'Distributive' Marxism: additional strategies on Roemer, Cohen, and Exploitation; Roemer vs. Marx; should still someone have an interest in Exploitation?; Exploitation and Equality: Labour energy as a Non-Commodity; Marxism, Materialism and historic growth; Ruling rules; Rationality and Alienation; In Defence of Abundance; Afterword.
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Two challenges to the view that all individual behavior is the result of rational choice come immediately to mind. One might be called the Hobbesian challenge because of Hobbes' challenge: read thyself. This was his challenge to those who might doubt his view that people are always self-interested. When I read myself, however, I do not find the sort of thing that either Hobbes or the analytical social scientists claim is the whole of our nature. Nor do others appear wholly rational and self-interested.
Are in principle explicable in ways that only involve individuals' (Elster, 1985, 5). An ontological reason for advocating individualism is that the constituents of anything to be socially analyzed are apparently individuals. They are said to be the relevant units, the atoms, for any investigation (see Roemer, 1981, 7). A similar point is made by Elster when he says that by looking at individuals we `reduce the time-span . . between cause and effect' (1985, 5). Not only are individuals the atoms, but they are also seen as the only real units of social cause and effect.
He contrasts his position with a classical class conflict theory, which he indicts for assuming too direct a connection between class structure, material interests, and collective action. In his view Marxism is strengthened by the microfoundations of values, cultures, organizations, and leaders. Both Frank Cunningham and Richard Schmitt take up direct investigations of methodological individualism. Cunningham claims Page 18 that everyone, including Marx, accepts both individualistic and holistic explanations and argues that the differences are largely over the appropriateness to practical needs.
Analyzing Marxism: new essays on analytical Marxism by Robert Ware